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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 66-71. Oxidized messenger RNA induces translation errors. 2007

Tanaka, M., Chock, P.B., and Stadtman, E.R.

Notes: Oxidative damage has been associated with a range of age-related neurological conditions. In this study, the effect of mRNA oxidation was investigated. A direct correlation was observed between the extent of oxidation and the frequency of translation errors. The authors excised the firefly luciferase (luc2) gene from the pGL4.14 Vector, attached a FLAG tag to the 5´ terminus and a Myc tag to the 3´ terminus, and subcloned the gene into a pGEM-4Z Vector that had been modified to append a poly(A) sequence. The construct was transfected into HEK293 cells, which were then cultured in the presence of an oxidizing agent. The occurrence of truncated protein fragments and short peptides increased in the presence of the oxidizing agent in a concentration-dependent manner. The effects of oxidation of mRNA were also investigated in in vitro translation experiments using mRNA treated with an iron-ascorbate mixture and hydrogen peroxide. Translation in vitro was performed using rabbit reticulocyte lysate supplemented with protease inhibitors. The translation products were detected using anti-FLAG and anti-c-Myc antibodies. (3630)

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Mol. Cell. Biol. 24(8), 3337-46. Recruitment of N-CoR/SMRT-TBLR1 corepressor complex by unliganded thyroid hormone receptor for gene repression during frog development. 2004

Tomita A., Buchholz D.R. and Shi Y.B.

Notes: The authors used Xenopus laevis oocytes to show that unliganded thyroid hormone receptor (TR) recruits N-CoR (nuclear receptor corepressor) to modulate metamorphosis.  To study this influence, the cytoplasm of stage VI oocytes from X. laevis was injected with the indicated mRNAs [TR, retinoic acid receptor (RXR) and FLAG-tagged N-CoR].  The reporter plasmid TRE-Luc (0.33 ng/oocyte; thyroid hormone response elements from a Xenopus promoter driving expression of the firefly luciferase gene) and the control vector phRG-TK (0.03 ng/oocyte) were co-injected into the germinal vesicle (nucleus) after mRNA injection. After overnight incubation at 18°C, oocyte lysates were prepared by lysing six oocytes in 90µL 1X Passive Lysis Buffer. The Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay System was then used to assay 7µl of the lysate. The researchers also used an expression vector (based on the pGEM®-4Z Vector) containing the 5’ and 3’ untranslated regions of the X. laevis beta-globin gene flanking the multiple cloning site. (3088)

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J. Biol. Chem. 274, 16582-16589. CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein delta regulates mammary epithelial cell G0 growth arrest and apoptosis 1999

O'Rourke, J.P., Newbound, G.C., Hutt, J.A., DeWille, J.

Notes: The authors investigated the effect of altered C/EBPδ content on G0 growth arrest and apoptosis in mammary epithelial cell lines. The pGEM-4Z cloning vector was used in a cloning strategy to create a RNA antisense plasmid. For overexpression, HC11 cells were transfected with an overexpression plasmid using Promega's Transfectam® Reagent. Cell proliferation of HC11, HC11/antisense and HC11/overexpression cell lines was assessed using the CellTiter 96® AQueous Non-Radioactive Cell Proliferation Assay. (0565)

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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 8669-8674. Medin: An integral fragment of aortic smooth muscle cell-produced lactadherin forms the most common huyman amyloid. 1999

Häggqvist, B., Näslund, J., Sletten, K., Westermark, G.T., Mucchiano, G., Tjernberg, L.O., Norstedt, C., Engström, U., Westermark, P.

Notes: The pGEM®-4Z Vector was used for subcloning, and the resulting plasmid was used for in vitro transcription. (1093)

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pGEM®-4Z Vector

J. Biol. Chem. 274, 2732-2742. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 activation is essential for progression through the G2/M checkpoint arrest in cells exposed to ionizing radiation. 1999

Abbott, D.W. and Holt, J.T.

Notes: The pGEM®-4Z Vector was used in subcloning. (2223)

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pGEM®-4Z Vector

J. Neurosci. 19, 4533-4543. T-Lymphocyte activation increases hypothalamic and amygdaloid expression of CRH mRNA and emotional reactivity to novelty. 1999

Kusnecov, A.W., Liang, R., Shurin, G.

Notes: The pGEM®-4Z Vector was used for subcloning and the resultant plasmid used in in vitro transcription. (0868)

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pGEM®-4Z Vector

Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64, 535-542. Characterization of marine temperate phage-host system isolated from Mamala Bay, Oahu, Hawaii. 1998

Jiang, S.C., Kellogg, C.A., Paul, J.H.

Notes: The Wizard® Lambda DNA Purification System was used to isolate phage for the Sphingomonas paucimobilis and Flavobacterium sp. isolates. The isolated DNA was used for determination of the phage genome size by restriction digestion. The Wizard® Genomic DNA Purification Kit was used to isolate the genomic DNA from these bacterial species as well. The authors note that the DNA isolated with the Wizard® Genomic Kit was as pure as that purified by a cesium chloride gradient. Loading of the DNA isolated with the Genomic Kit onto cesium chloride gradients produced only a single sharp band after centrifugation. The isolated DNA was used for dot blot hybridizations. (0979)

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J. Neurosci. 17, 4282-4292. Selective expression of dopamine D3 receptor mRNA in proliferative zones during embryonic development of the rat brain. 1997

Diaz, J., Ridray, S., Mignon, V., Griffon, N., Schwartz, J.C., Sokoloff, P.

Notes: The Riboprobe® in vitro Transcription System was used to produce 33P-labeled RNA probes for in situ hybridizations. (1232)

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Diabetes 46, 1270-1275. Value of antibodies to islet protein tyrosine phosphatase-like molecule in predicting type 1 diabetes. 1997

Hawa, M., Rowe, R., Lan, M.S., Notkins, A.L., Pozzilli, Christie, M.R. and Leslie, R.D.G.

Notes: Sixty patients were screened for autoantibodies to IA-2 (a protein tyrosine phosphatase-like molecule), IA-2ic (the intracellular fragment of IA-2) and GAD65 (glutamic acid decarboxylase) using RIAs. Full-length human cDNAs were cloned into the pGEM®-4Z Vector and expressed in the TNT® Coupled Reticulocyte Lysate System in the presence of [35S]methionine. Incorporated radiolabel was determined by precipitation and scintillation counting. Immunoprecipitation was performed with 5µl of serum and counted on a multiwell counter. Antibodies to IA-2 or GAD65 were detected in 87% of newly diagnosed type 1 diabetic patients and in all 56 prediabetic samples from 11 twins. The frequencies of antibodies to IA-2ic were similar in type 1 diabetics. (1763)

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EMBO J. 15, 4613-4628. The fission yeast Cdc1 protein, a homologue of the small subunit of DNA polymerase delta, binds to Pol3 and Cdc27. 1996

MacNeill, S.A., Moreno, S., Reynolds, N., Nurse, P. and Fantes, P.A.

Notes: HA and Myc epitope tags were introduced at the C-terminus of Cdc1 and Cdc27 by oligo-directed mutagenesis. Cdc1tag and Cdc27tag were cloned into the pGEM®-4Z Vector and expressed in the TNT® T7 Coupled Reticulocyte Lysate System ± [35S]methionine. In GST coimmunoprecipitation assays, Cdc1 interacts with GST-Pol3, and the GST-Pol3 binds preferentially to a truncated Cdc1 translation product. To confirm an interaction observed between Cdc1 and Cdc27, the TNT®-expressed proteins were mixed together and co-immunoprecipitated using the anti-Cdc27 antibodies Using EGS (ethylene glycol-bis-succinimidylsuccinate) labeled, in vitro translated Cdc1 and Cdc27 were cross-linked. (1771)

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